Basics of Computer

Basics of Computer

Computer is an electronic machine which takes data input and after processing it produce the desired output to its users. Computer is basically compared with human brain because of its design and data processing. It can store data in its memory which can be used instantly or after a long time in future. It consists of hardware and software which helps its user to communicate with the computer. Computer can understand only binary language contains two types of numbers or bits 0&1.

Meaning of Computer

C- Commonly
O- Operating
M- Machine
P- Purposely
U- Used in
T- Technical &
E- Educational

Basic Applications and uses of Computer

Computer has many sizes, types and configurations. However, all computers consist of same basic components and architecture. Computer has an important role in the society and need of computer education is almost essential to everyone in their life. Most common and important uses of computer in the society are:

  • It helps to write documents like letters, articles, blogs, reports, memos and invoices. Etc.
  • It is used to prepare databases of various business and other activities to get useful results.
  • It helps to record financial transactions easily.
  • It can help to calculate difficult formulas in seconds.
  • It is useful for students to research and development as per their subject need.
  • A computer can store information for a long period of time so that it can be used later in future.
  • With computers peoples can get in touch from a long distance using internet facility.
  • Computers are used to do trading of shares etc.
  • E –commerce/ online shopping business is totally depends upon internet and computers.
  • Children can play games, watch movies etc. using computers.
  • Computers are playing a vital role in hospitals to produce various medical reports and invoices.
  • Bus tickets, train tickets, flight bookings can be done with the help of computers.
  • Computers are used almost in every government and private offices.
  • Defense and police departments are using computers to reduce crime and other criminal activities.

What is Operating System?

An operating system or system software is a program which controls the process of execution of application programs and makes an interface between computer and its user. An operating system helps user and computer hardware to communicate with each other easily. It is a type of software that can manage all the hardware so that it can produce the desired results to the users. Only with the help of operating system users can give commands to computer to execute various tasks. Some examples of the operating systems are Windows 98, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Ubuntu, Windows 8, Windows 10 and more. All these information is included in the Basics of Computer

Computer Hardware and Software

Computer Hardware
Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer that can be seen or touched. These components like keyboard, mouse, memory, drives, Monitor, microprocessors, motherboard are connected with wires and cables are called computer hardware.
More examples of Hardware: Cabinet , Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Hard Drives, RAM, DVD Writer, USB Ports, Data Bus, ICs and all other physical components which we can see and touch.

Computer Software in Basics of Computer

Computer software refers to the programs and applications that are stored in a computer and can be used to execute various programs as per their convenience. Computer software has two types

  • System Software
  • Application Software

System Software

System software is a software that is used to operate various resources of a computer and is designed to provide a platform for other applications and software’s. It helps to run hardware and application programs of a computer and enable its users to interact with the machine. Microsoft Windows, iOS, GNU/Linux etc. are the live examples of system software. A computer is useless without system software/operating system.

Application Software

When a user is able to interact with the computer machine with the help of operating system/system software, application software helps them to execute programs and complete the tasks. It is designed for its end users who can perform various tasks on computer using applications or apps in short. Some examples of application software are Microsoft Office, Accounting Software (Tally, Busy, ERP Solutions etc), web browsers, media players, PDF viewer and many more.

Components of Computer

Computers are of various shapes and sizes but commonly used computers are called personal computers. Here we will discuss the main components of Personal Computers. The main components of a computer are:

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU stands for Central Processing Unit also called the brain of computer is the primary component of a computer. This mainly refers to the microprocessor and its associated circuitry. When Users input data using application software’s CPU runs the operating system and applications to process the input data and produce the desired output. It stores all the information, results and instructions and performs all the processing operations and controls all parts of computer.

basics of computer


Microprocessor is the integrated (IC) which has a complex circuit inside it and process the digital instructions at a very high speed. It includes CPU, Instruction decoder, registers and arithmetic logic units and controls all the activities of a computer. Some examples of microprocessors are Pentium 1, Pentium 2, Pentium 3, Pentium 4, Dual Core, Core to Duo, Core to Quad, i3,i5,i7 etc.

CPU consist of three main parts

  • Memory (Storage Unit)
  • Control Unit
  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

Memory Unit or Storage Unit

It refers to the main memory or the primary memory or Random Access Memory (RAM) of computer. This unit provides information to other units. It works as the internal storage of computer and can store all the instructions, data and results. The speed, capability and power of a computer depend upon the size of RAM. Primary memory and secondary memory are the two main type of Memory Unit.

Control Unit (CU)

This unit does not perform any actual data processing but can control the operations of all the parts of computer. It manages all the units and controls transfer of data and instructions among all units of computer. It also controls the input and output devices, communicates with them for transferring data or results from storage. Data cannot be processed or stored by the Control Unit.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit

It has two subsections for performing different operations. Arithmetic section can perform only arithmetic operations which include addition, multiplications, subtraction and division while the logic unit can perform logic operations only such as selection, comparison, merging and matching of data

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